, for at the time constitutional reasons. at that point they didn't realize that the commerce clause of the constitution was not very relevant, they still worried about that, and that's why the program was designed that way, and that's one of the reasons it's so difficult to get states to often cooperate with the federal government. as has been alluded to, there was a gao study that found, um n fiscal year 2009 nine different federal agencies spent $18 billion to administer 47 different training programs. um, the report points out that almost all federal employment training programs including those with broader missions such as multipurpose block grants overlapped with at least one other program and that they provided similar services to similar populations. so there's just simply a lot of duplicative services being provided, and often times not provided in a very coherent fashion at least, um, from my standpoint as someone -- and i should make clear, there are a lot of people in this room that have worked actively in the department of labor. i'm not one of them, so i defer to them.